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  1. Agro-Allied Industries and Relationship between Agriculture and Industry | Week 1
    2 Topics
    1 Quiz
  2. Environmental Factors Affecting Agricultural Production | Week 2
    5 Topics
    1 Quiz
  3. Rock Formation | Week 3
    6 Topics
    1 Quiz
  4. Soil Formation and Profile Development | Week 4
    3 Topics
    1 Quiz
  5. Types, Composition and Properties of Soil | Week 5
    10 Topics
    1 Quiz
  6. Simple Farm Tools: Uses and Maintenance | Week 6
    2 Topics
    1 Quiz
  7. Farm Machines and Implements | Week 7
    6 Topics
    1 Quiz

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Topic Content:

  • Inter-Relationship among Living Things
    • Competition, Parasitism, Symbiosis, Commensalism, Predation
  • Theory Questions


This involves the interactions between two organisms of the same or different species, in which one outgrows the other and survives; while the other can neither grow nor survive.

Competition is based on: Environmental resources which can be in short supply such as food, water, nutrients, gases, light and space. When the competition is between members of the same species, it is called intraspecific competition; while it is called interspecific competition when it is between members of different species.

Examples of Competitive Associations:


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Evaluation Questions:

1 (a) State three major environmental factors affecting agricultural production in Nigeria.


(i) Climatic factors

(ii) Biotic Factors

(iii) Edaphic Factors


(b) Define climate.

Answer: It’s the average weather condition of a place over a period of time.


(c) Highlight five importance of climate in agriculture.


(i) Affects the duration of a cropping season

(ii) Limits the types of crop to be grown in an area.

(iii) Determines the yield of crops

(iv) Affects the incidence of diseases.

(v) Limits the type of livestock to be reared in an area.


2. Discuss four climate factors that affect agricultural production.


(i) Rainfall:

The most important factor of climate is rainfall. It’s the release of excess condensed water vapour in the atmosphere into the earth.

Importance of Rainfall on Agricultural Production

  • Determines the distribution of crops and animals
  • Necessary for seed germination

(ii) Drought:

This is a lack of rainfall or insufficient rainfall in an area.

Effects of Drought on Agricultural Production:

  • Poor crop growth.
  • Reduction in yield.
  • Decrease in the production of green matter.
  • Reduction in leaf area.

(iii) Temperature:

The degree of hotness or coldness of a place.

Effects of Temperature on Agricultural Production

  • For germination of seeds.
  • Affects the distribution of crops and animals.
  • Unfavourable temperatures may result in seed dormancy.
  • Affects the wilting of field crops.
  • Affects the ripening and maturing of crops.

(iv) Wind:

This is the air in motion.

Effects of Wind on Agricultural production:

  •  Aids seed and fruit dispersal.
  • Aids pollination.
  • Affects evapotranspiration.
  • Helps in the distribution of rainfall and changes in seasons (rainy and dry season)


3. Briefly explain the following inter-relationship among living things:

(i) Competition:


This involves the interactions among two organisms of the same or different species in which one outgrows the other and survives while the other can neither grow nor survive.

Competition is often based on: environmental resources which can be in short supply such as food, water, nutrients, gases, light and space.

Examples of Competitive Association:

Flowering plants and greases

Adult domestic fowls and young chicks.

(ii) Parasitism:


This is a feeding relationship between two organisms in which the parasite lives in or on the body of the host, deriving benefit from and causing harm to it, while the host loses in the process.

Examples of Parasitism:

  • Man and the tapeworm.
  • Mistletoe and flowering plants.

(iii) Symbiosis


This is a close association between two organisms in which both of them benefit from each other. Symbiosis is a beneficial association and each member is called a symbiont.

Examples of Symbiotic Association:

  • Alga and fungus in lichen
  • Protozoa in the intestine of termites

(iv) Commensalism


This is an association between two organisms living together in which only one (commensal) benefits from the association while the other is neither benefits nor harmed.

Examples of Commensalism:

  • Remora fish and Shark
  • Oyster shell and Crab
  • Man and intestinal bacteria


4(a) List six edaphic factors affecting agricultural production.


  •  Soil pH
  • Soil texture
  • Soil fertility
  • Soil types
  • Soil structure
  • Topography


(b) Enumerate three effects of them on agricultural production.


(i) Soil Fertility:

  • Aids the production of food and cash crops.
  • Reduces the cost of production.
  • Maximizes the use of fertilizer and organic manure.

(ii) Soil Types:

  • Loamy soil is rich in soil nutrients, therefore, it is the best soil for agriculture.
  • Sandy soil encourages leaching and prevents soil erosion.
  • Clay soil encourages water-logging and erosion but prevents the leaching of plant nutrients.

(iii) Topography:

  • Steep and gentle slopes may cause weathering of rocks.
  • Flat slopes can lead to the accumulation of soil.
  • Smooth, flat or even slopes can be better land for farming.

(iv) Soil Texture:

  • Determines the level of soil fertility
  • Determines the type of crop to be grown
  • Affects the level of leaching and erosion.


5 (a) Identify six biotic facts affecting agricultural production.


(i) Soil organisms

(ii) Pests

(iii) Weeds

(iv) Diseases

(v) Parasites

(vi) Predators


(b) Complete the table below;

Fungal Parasite Host Plant
i. Ustilago
ii. Maize, wheat, barley
iii. Cocoa
iv. Alternaria


Fungal Parasite Host Plant
i. Ustilago Maize
ii. Puccinia Maize, Wheat, Barley
iii. Phytophthora palmivora Cocoa
Iv Alternaria Tomato


(c) Define predation and give two typical examples.


This is a type of association in which the predator kills the other called the prey and directly feeds on it.

Examples of Predation:

  • The hawks and Chicks of domestic fowls
  • The lion and goat
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