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JSS3: BUSINESS STUDIES - 2ND TERM

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  1. Setting Simple Business Goals | Week 1
    3 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Simple Single Business Plan | Week 2
    2 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Consumer Protection Agencies | Week 3
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  4. How to make Complaints | Week 4
    3 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Reasons and Procedures for Banning and Restricting Chemicals not Suitable for Use | Week 5
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  6. How to Seek Redress | Week 6
    3 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Personal Finance | Week 7
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  8. Trial Balance | Week 8
    3 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  9. Trading, Profit and Loss | Week 9
    3 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  10. Balance Sheet | Week 10
    1 Topic
    |
    1 Quiz
  11. Business Letters | Week 11
    2 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  12. Simple Tabulation - Table Creation | Week 12
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  13. Manuscript Abbreviations and Erasing Technique | Week 13
    3 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz



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The beauty of any typewritten document is greatly influenced by the way the work is displayed. An effective display is concerned with a good and orderly arrangement of type correspondence using suitable paper. Three common methods of display are frequently used in keyboarding. These are horizontal, vertical, and blocked.

Horizontal Display

Horizontal display is commonly used in most offices while typing letters in this type of display, the words or titles are centred in the middle of the page so that there is equal space on both the left and right of the page. To centre words, the titles or heading using horizontal display, the following steps should be followed:

  1. Clear all tabular stops by pressing the tab “ “  and tabular bar, use the margin release to free the carriage.
  2. Insert the typing bar paper and set the left edge on the paper scale.
  3. Set the top margin by using the carriage return lever to get the desired spaces.
  4. Ascertain the number of typing spaces and the left and right and of the paper.
  5. After counting the spaces, divide the total by two to find the centre of the paper.
  6. Move the carriage to the Centre, backspace by the number in your calculation, divide by two and start typing.

Vertical Display

In vertical display, the words are arranged on the page to ensure that the spaces above and below the document typed or equal spaces left at the top and bottom are dependent on the length of the document typed. The following steps should be adopted when using vertical display:

  1. You should determine the number of typing lines from the top to the bottom of your typing paper.
  2. You should count the number of lines the document will occupy this should include both typed lines and lines occupied by spaces between typing.
  3. You should deduce from the number of lines
  4. You should divide the figures by two to ascertain the number above and below while typing.
  5. You should insert your typing paper and turn your carriage return lever according to the spaces calculated when using a typewriter.
  6. You should now type the word creating each line horizontally and turning the carriage the return lever desired.  

Blocked Display

In fully blocked style, all the lines are typed beginning from the left-hand margin. When letters are typed using single line spacing, the carriage return lever is turned twice (double line spacing) between paragraphs. Letters typed in double line spacing allow line spacing between paragraphs.

Types of Display Headings

  • Main heading
  • Subheading
  • Paragraph heading      
  • Shoulder heading
  • Side heading

Main Heading:

The main heading is normally displayed at the top of a document being typed in capital letters. It represents the title of the document.

Paragraph Heading: The paragraph heading normally appears at the beginning of the paragraph.

Shoulder Heading: The shoulder heading is similar to the paragraph heading.

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