Lesson 2, Topic 2
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The Types/Levels of Values

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Values have to do with what people like or dislike. These values are not universal. One’s family, nation, generation, and historical environment help to determine one’s values. However, values once developed may be resistant to change.

The Types of Values Include:

1.       Universal values.

2.       Personal values.

3.       Social values.

4.       Economic values.

5.       National Values.

Universal Values: These are values that show the general norms of a society e.g. traits and behaviours.

Personal Values: This is an individual perception and ideology of life, how they make personal choices and decisions, and what individuals cherish most.

Social Values: These are values a group of people or gang cherish. It is being upheld by every member of that society.

Economic Values: These are values that an economy cherishes most. e.g. asset: the monetary worth of a thing or an item.

National Values: These are the values that are generally accepted by the people of a nation. e.g. good behavior or generally accepted beliefs about what is good, desirable, and useful.

Importance of Values:

1.       They help in goals setting.

2.       They determine how our set goals are achieved.

3.       They promote good relationships in the society.

4.       They help to control our behaviours in the society.

5.       They make us have a positive influence on others.

6.       Values make us happy and feel fulfilled.

The broad three ways in which values are manifested are:

1.       Individual level.

2.       Family level.

3.       Societal level.

Individual Level:

Everybody has an inbuilt (inherited) ability to manifest social values. Some people that are used to wearing traditional dresses, manifest community values at an individual level.

In childhood, values are received by individuals, from the family, peers, cultural and religious teaching, schools, etc. At this stage, values are imposed.

Family Level:

When a boy is stubborn or behaves in a way that is similar to his father, we say such a boy is manifesting a social value of his family. (father.) Each family has peculiar ways of displaying particular social values.

Societal/Society Level:

The kind of environment a child grew up in, also has an influence on the behaviour he or she portrays. Values are manifested in society by the collective actions of people in society. For example, a society can be known to value neatness, when its environment is clean and the streets are not littered with dirt.

Individual value helps societal values because social values are things we generally agree on, as good or bad in our society or community, i.e. A societal value is a collection of various individual values.

Level of Manifestation of Value:

Values are manifested in different ways and forms;

1.       By being oneself in all situations.

2.       By respecting other views and values.

3.       By being faithful in all situations.

4.       Making an effort to influence others positively.

5.       By being loyal to the constituted authority.

6.       By being law-abiding citizens.

7.       By making the right decision in all situations.