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JSS2: AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE - 1ST TERM

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Post-Planting operations are the activities carried out on the farm after planting.

These operations enhance the growth and performance of crops.

Post-Planting operations include;

1. Supplying:

This is the replanting of seeds to replace those seeds that failed to germinate, due to dead seeds and diseased seeds. The failed seeds must be replaced to have an adequate number and population of plants on the farm.

2. Thinning:

This is the removal of excess and weak seedlings, from a ‘stand’ when the seeds per hole are more than required. It gives room for others to grow. Thinning is mostly carried out after the rain when the soil is moist. It reduces overcrowding, prevents crops from competing for light, water and nutrients, and improves plant vigour.

3. Mulching:

This is the covering of the soil surface, with materials such as dry grasses, leaves, crop residue, sawdust, and straw wood shavings, to prevent evaporation of conserved water and weed growth.

Mulching regulates soil temperature and prevents erosion. It also adds nutrients to the soil, and also suppresses weeds.

Mulching strawberries
Mulching strawberries.

4. Weeding:

This is the removal of unwanted plants or weeds from farmland. Weeding can be done in different ways. This includes;

a. Physical control through the use of hands, cutlass, hoe, etc

b. Mechanical control through the use of machines.

c. Biological control through the use of some insects to eat up the weeds.

d. Chemical control through the use of some chemicals like herbicides to control weeds.

5. Pests and Disease Control:

Insects pests and diseases, affect the quality and reduce the quantity, of harvested crops. The cheapest, and most effective control of pests and diseases, is the use of resistant varieties of crops. Control can be achieved by:

a. Spraying appropriate chemicals like pesticides, fungicides, and nematicides.

b. Good and quality farm management.

c. Use of resistant varieties of crops.

d. Timely planting.

e. Use of natural enemies.

6. Manuring or Fertilizer Application:

The application of manure and fertilizer enhances the growth of plants. Before application, the farmer should know the particular mineral nutrients lacking in the soil, and also the quantity of fertilizer to be applied.

Fertilizers should be applied when there is sufficient moisture in the soil.

7. Pruning:

This is the removal of the lower branches of a tree, to make it grow better. Pruning encourages better canopy formation.

Pruning
Pruning.

8. Staking:

This process involves, pushing into the ground, a piece of strong stick or bamboo, to support a plant. Staking is very important in yam and tomato, to promote good growth and high yield.

Staking Tomatos
Staking Tomatoes.

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