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  1. Kinetic Theory of Matter | Week 1
    3 Topics
    1 Quiz
  2. Kinetic Theory of Matter & Gas Laws I | Week 2
    3 Topics
    1 Quiz
  3. Gas Laws II | Week 3
    3 Topics
    1 Quiz
  4. Gas Laws III | Week 4
    3 Topics
    1 Quiz
  5. Gas Laws IV | Week 5
    3 Topics
    1 Quiz
  6. Mole Concept | Week 6
    5 Topics
    1 Quiz
  7. Acid, Bases and Salts I | Week 7
    7 Topics
    1 Quiz
  8. Acid, Bases and Salts II | Week 8
    6 Topics
    2 Quizzes
  9. Acid, Bases and Salts III | Week 9
    3 Topics
    2 Quizzes
  10. Acid, Bases and Salts IV | Week 10
    4 Topics
    1 Quiz
  11. Acid, Bases and Salts V | Week 11
    5 Topics
    1 Quiz

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Topic Content:

  • Phenomena Supporting Kinetic Theory
  • Theory Questions and Answers – Kinetic Theory of Matter

We learnt that matter is made up of tiny particles. The fact that these particles are in constant motion is being exhibited in the following natural phenomena that support the kinetic theory.

1. Brownian Movement:

Brownian movement or motion is the zig-zig, irregular motion exhibited by minute particles of matter when suspended in a fluid.

It was first observed by a British botanist, Robert Brown, in 1827, when studying pollen grains. He observed that when pollen grains are suspended in water under a microscope, the pollen grains move about in a zig-zag manner. The movement is known as the Brownian movement.

2. Diffusion:


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Theory Question 1

1. State the Kinetic theory of Matter. 

The kinetic theory of matter states that matter is made up of tiny particles such as atoms, molecules, and ions. These particles are continually moving, so they possess kinetic energy.

b. Outline three natural phenomena that support it.

Phenomena supporting kinetic energy

i. Diffusion

ii. Osmosis

iii. Brownian movement

Diffusion: This is the movement of molecules of a substance from a region of higher concentration to that of lower concentration. For instance, if a perfume is sprayed in corner of a room, its molecules will diffuse to all parts of the room within a short time.

Osmosis: This is the movement of water molecules or other solvents from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration through a semi-permeable membrane.

Brownian Movement: This is the zig-zag, irregular motion exhibited by minute particles of matter when suspended in a fluid.

Theory Question 2

2. (a) Give three differences between Solid and Liquid



(1) Has a fixed shape

Has no fixed shape

(2) Movement is restricted in solids

Movement is less restricted in liquids

(3) Solids are very dense

Liquids are less dense as compared to solids

(b) Which state of Matter contains particles that are:

(i) Readily compressedGaseous state

(ii) Held firmly by some forces of CohesionSolid-state

(iii) Involved in rapid motionGaseous state

Theory Question 3

3. (a) Explain how impurity in a substance affects

(i) Melting point – When a substance e.g. solid contains an impurity, it lowers the melting point of the solid.

(ii) Boiling point – When a substance contains an impurity, it raises the boiling point of the pure liquid. The boiling point of a liquid is sharp.

(b) State one Similarity and two differences between Boiling and Evaporation

i. Similarity – Boiling, and evaporation are both states of matter

ii. Differences





Bubbles are seen

Bubbles are not seen


Occurs throughout the liquid

Occurs at the surface of the liquid


Causes heating and an increase in the entropy of the system

Causes cooling and a decrease in the entropy of the system

Theory Question 4

4. Write short notes on the following

(a) Latent heat of Vaporisation 

Answer – This is the energy absorbed by a liquid as it turns into gas to overcome the cohesive force during boiling.

 (b) Tyndal Effect

Answer – This is the scattering of light as a light beam passes through a colloid. The individual suspension particles scatter and reflect light, making the beam visible.

(c) Dialysis 

Answer – This is the process whereby crystalloids in a true solution pass through a permeable membrane.

(d) Brownian Motion

Answer – This is the zig-zag, irregular motion exhibited by minute particles of matter when suspended in a fluid.

Theory Question 5

5. (a) Evaporation causes Cooling. Explain

Answer –  This occurs as a result of the particles of liquid and the energy in the surrounding i.e. particles of liquid absorb energy from the surrounding or environment to regain the energy lost during evaporation.


The above is a diagrammatic representation of the changes in the states of Matter (i) Name all the processes involved from 1 to 6 

(1) Evaporation

(2) Condensation

(3) Freezing

(4) Melting

(5) Sublimation

(6) Sublimation

(ii) What can bring about one of these changes?

 A change in temperature

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