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SS1: CHEMISTRY - 1ST TERM

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  1. Introduction to Chemistry and Laboratory Apparatus | Week 1
    5Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Nature of Matter | Week 2
    3Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Separation Techniques I | Week 3
    1Topic
    |
    1 Quiz
  4. Separation Techniques II | Week 4
    5Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Particulate Nature of Matter I | Week 5
    5Topics
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    1 Quiz
  6. Particulate Nature of Matter II | Week 6
    9Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Symbols, Formulae & Oxidation Number | Week 7
    7Topics
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    1 Quiz
  8. Laws of Chemical Combination | Week 8
    4Topics
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    1 Quiz
  9. Chemical Equation & Chemical Combination (Chemical Bonding) I | Week 9
    4Topics
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    1 Quiz
  10. Chemical Combination (Chemical Bonding) II | Week 10
    4Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  11. Chemical Combination (Chemical Bonding) III & Shapes of Covalent Molecules | Week 11
    3Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
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In co-ordinate covalent bonding, electrons are still shared but it is only one of the participating atoms that donate the pair of electrons to be shared. Such a pair of electrons is called the Lone pair.

Co-ordinate covalent bonding occurs between an atom that has a Lone-pair (unshared pair) of electrons in the outer shell and another atom that has an empty valence orbital and requires one pair of electrons to complete an octet or duplet structure.

The atom that contributes the pair of electrons to be shared is known as donor-atom, while the other is the acceptor atom.

Examples:

Formation of Ammonium ion (NH4+)

Screen Shot 2021 01 17 at 2.30.35 PM Easy Resize.com
Screen Shot 2021 01 17 at 2.30.57 PM Easy Resize.com

Ammonia and water molecule possess Lone pair and they can enter into a co-ordinate covalent bonding. When Ammonia (NH3) reacts with Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) the H+ from HCl accepts a Lone pair of electrons from Ammonia (NH3) to form a co-ordinate covalent bond. The H+ will attain a stable duplet structure of helium while the Nitrogen atom of the ammonia will also be stable.

Formation of Hydroxonium Ion or Oxonium Ion (H2O+)

Covalent bonding

Examples of Compounds that Exhibit Co-ordinate Covalent Bond:

NH3Cl – Ammonium Chloride or

NH4+  – Ammonium ion

H3O+    – Hydroxonium ion or oxonium ion

[CU(NH3)4]2+      – Tetrammine copper (II) ion

[Ag(NH3)2]        – Silver diammine ion

Properties of Co-ordinate Covalent Compounds

Covalent and co-ordinate covalent compounds have similar properties but co-ordinate covalent compounds are less volatile than covalent compounds

Theory Questions

1. (a) State four differences between Electrovalent and Covalent Compounds

(b) State the type of bonding formed in the following 

(i) Carbon(IV) Oxide 

(ii) Oxonium ion 

(iii) Calcium Chloride

View Answer

2. The Electronic configuration for the metal Calcium, the non-metals Silicon, and Chloride can be represented as 

Ca – 2, 8, 8, 2

Si – 2, 8,4

Cl – 2, 8,7

Explain in terms of electrons, the formation of Calcium Chloride and Silicon Chloride.

Give two differences in physical properties you would expect between Calcium Chloride and Silicon Chloride

View Answer

3. (a) Write down the electronic configuration of the Elements Q, R, and S, whose atomic numbers are as follows

ElementAtomic Number
Q8
R12
S19

(b) Draw the diagrammatic representation of the compound formed between Q and R

(c) What is the Electronic configuration of the ions in the resulting compound between Q and R? 

(d) Is Q a metal or non-metal?

View Answer

4. (a) (i) What is Dative bonding? 

(ii) State one condition that must be met for Dative bonding to take place

(b) Given the following Atomic Numbers   X = 12, Y = 17

(i) Write the formula of the Compound formed between X and Y

(ii) Name the type of Bond formed in 4b(i)

(iii) Give a simple definition of the type of Bond formed.

View Answer

Theory Question 1

1. (a) State four differences between Electrovalent and Covalent Compounds.

Answer:

  Electrovalent Compounds Covalent Compounds
1. They have high melting
and boiling points.
They have low melting and
boiling points.
2. They are solids that do
not vapourise easily.
They are gases or
volatile liquids.
3. They are soluble in water or
polar solvents but insoluble
in non-polar solvents.
They are not soluble in water
or polar solvents but soluble
in non-polar solvents.
4. They are electrolytes i.e
they conduct electricity in
solution or molten form.
They are non-electrolyte, i.e
they do not conduct electricity.

 

(b) State the type of bonding formed in the following 

Answer:

(i) Carbon(IV) Oxide – CO2 Covalent bond

(ii) Oxonium ion – H2O+ dative/coordinate covalent bond

(iii) Calcium Chloride – CaCl2 Electrovalent bond

Theory Question 2

The Electronic configuration for the metal Calcium, the non-metals Silicon, and Chloride can be represented as 

Ca – 2, 8, 8, 2

Si – 2, 8,4

Cl – 2, 8,7

Explain in terms of electrons, the formation of Calcium Chloride and Silicon Chloride.

Give two differences in physical properties you would expect between Calcium Chloride and Silicon Chloride

Calcium chloride

Equation for the Reaction

Ca → Ca2+ + 2e

2Cl → 2Cl + 2e

Diagrammatic representation of the combination of CaCl2

b. Silicon Chloride

Theory Question 3

3. (a) Write down the electronic configuration of the Elements Q, R, and S, whose atomic numbers are as follows

Element Atomic Number
Q 8
R 12
S 19

Answer:

 

(b) Draw the diagrammatic representation of the compound formed between Q and R

Answer:

Q = Oxygen = O2+
R = Magnesium = Mg2+

 

(c) What is the Electronic configuration of the ions in the resulting compound between Q and R? 

Answer:

O2+ = 8 – 2 = 6

Mg2+ = 12 – 10 = 10

 

(d) Is Q a metal or non-metal?

Answer:

Q is a non-metal

Theory Question 4

(i) What is Dative bonding?

Answer:

In co-ordinate covalent bonding, electrons are still shared but it is only one of the participating atoms that donate the pair of electrons to be shared. Such a pair of electrons is called the Lone pair. 

Coordinate covalent bonding occurs between an atom that has a Lone-pair (unshared pair) of electrons in the outer shell and another atom that has an empty valence orbital and requires one pair of electrons to complete an octet or duplet structure.

The atom that contributes the pair of electrons to be shared is known as donor-atom, while the other is the acceptor atom.

 

(ii) State one condition that must be met for Dative bonding to take place

Answer:

One of the atoms must be lone pair or have lone pair of electrons in the outer shell 

 

(b) Given the following Atomic Numbers   X = 12, Y = 17

x = 12 = Magnesium

y = 17 = Chlorine

Electronic configuration of

X = 2,8,2

Y = 2,8,7

(i) Write the formula of the Compound formed between X and Y

Answer: MgCl2

(ii) Name the type of Bond formed in 4b(i)

Answer: Electrovalent bond

(iii) Give a simple definition of the type of Bond formed.

Answer: Electrovalent bonding is the complete transfer of electrons from the outermost shell of a metal to the outermost shell of a non-metal

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