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SS1: CHEMISTRY - 1ST TERM

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  1. Introduction to Chemistry and Laboratory Apparatus | Week 1
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Nature of Matter | Week 2
    3 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Separation Techniques I | Week 3
    1 Topic
    |
    1 Quiz
  4. Separation Techniques II | Week 4
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Particulate Nature of Matter I | Week 5
    5 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  6. Particulate Nature of Matter II | Week 6
    9 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Symbols, Formulae & Oxidation Number | Week 7
    7 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  8. Laws of Chemical Combination | Week 8
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  9. Chemical Equation & Chemical Combination (Chemical Bonding) I | Week 9
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  10. Chemical Combination (Chemical Bonding) II | Week 10
    4 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  11. Chemical Combination (Chemical Bonding) III & Shapes of Covalent Molecules | Week 11
    3 Topics
    |
    1 Quiz



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Common Laboratory Apparatus

Below are Common Laboratory Apparatus, their description and uses:

ApparatusDescription and usePicture
1.BeakerA container made of glass
or plastic

It comes in different sizes
in cm3 (ml).

It is used as a container.
Beakers made of glass
are used for indirect
heating of chemicals
and water.
beaker
2.Bunsen
Burner
This is a metallic device
that produces a single
open flame when connected
to a gas outlet.

It is used as a source
of heat for heating.
bunsen burner
3.Burette
It is made of glass or
plastic and fitted with
a stopcock;

Can be used to withdraw
and measure accurate
volumes of solutions
during titrations.  
plastic burrete 1 250x250 1
4.Conical
Flask
It is made of glass or plastic;

It has a cone shape with
a narrow neck.

It allows content to be
swirled during an
experiment.

It is also used to mix or
store chemicals.

A glass conical flask is
used for indirect heating
of substances.
conical flask
5.Crucible
and Cover
It is made of porcelain;

It is used for heating
small amounts of
solid substances at
high temperatures.
Crucible and Cover
6.Crucible
Tongs
It is made of metal;

It is used to carry a
crucible when it is hot
(after it has been
subjected to heating)
or when very cold.
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7.DesiccatorIt contains desiccant,
which keeps hygroscopic
substances from
humidity.
Desiccator
8.DropperIt is made up of a
glass tip with a rubber
bulb.

It is used to dispense
drops of liquids.
Dropper
9.Electrical
Balance
Used for quick, accurate
measurement of mass.
10.Evaporation
Dish
Porcelain dish;

It is used to hold a
solution during
evaporation. 
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11.ForcepsIt is a handheld
instrument made of
metal or plastic.

It is used to isolate and
remove small particles or
hold many objects together.
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12.FunnelMade of glass or plastic;

It is used to hold a filter
paper during filtration.

It is also used for
transferring liquids into
containers with
relatively small openings,
so as to avoid spills.
funnel   
13.Separating
Funnel
Made of glass or plastic;

It is used to separate
immiscible liquids.
Separating funnel
14.Safety
Goggles
(Safety
Glasses)
A pair of safety glasses
worn to protect the eyes.
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15.Measuring
Cylinder
Made of plastic or glass;

It is used to measure
accurate volume
(usually of liquids).

They are of different
capacities.
measuring cylinder
16.Heat
Resistant
Gloves
This is a protective pair
of hand gloves used to
handle hot glassware,
or other hot laboratory
equipment.
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17.Mortar and
Pestle
Heavy porcelain dish
with grinder.

It is used to grind solid
chemicals into powder
form.
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18.Petri DishPlastic or glass;

It is a shallow cylindrical
dish with a lid.

It is used to observe
chemical reactions
and to hold specimens
for observation.
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19.Pipestem
Triangle
(Clay Triangle)
Triangular wireframe
with clay material
coverings.

It is used to hold a
crucible or other
lab-ware in place on a
Bunsen burner during
heating.
Pipestem Triangle
20.PipetteUsed to transfer small
(definite) amounts of
liquid to a different
container.

Volumetric pipettes
give an accurate
measurement of
liquids due to their long
necks which decreases
the error in measurement.
ZWTWRuVgOcegQmGAjISLz3qioIth
21.Plastic Wash
Bottle
Squeezable plastic bottle;

It is used to dispense
distilled water in the
laboratory.
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22.Reagent
Bottle
It is made of glass,
plastic, borosilicate,
or related substances,
and topped by special
caps or stoppers.

It contains chemicals in
liquid or powder form.
reagent bottle
23.Resort
Stand
It is a metal rod which
stands upright on a
heavy base
(triangular or
rectangular)
to which clamps can
be attached to hold
burettes and other
equipment such as
test tubes and
separating funnels.
retort stand
24.ClampIt is a metal clamp with
a screw fastener,
a swivel and lock nut,
an adjusting screw,
and a curved clamp;

Used to hold an
apparatus
(test tube or burette)
to the retort stand.
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25.Round
Bottom
Flask
Used to hold liquids
when carrying out
reactions.
round bottom flask
26.Rubber
Stopper
Used to cap the
openings of glassware,
such as test tubes or
Erlenmeyer flasks.
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27.SpatulaIt is made of metal,
sometimes wood;

It has a flat rounded end
and a rectangular end.

It is used to transfer
small amounts of solid
chemicals.
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28.Spot
Plates
Plastic or ceramic
reaction surfaces
with slight “dips”
for containing small
chemicals.
depositphotos 92276984 stock photo ceramic spot plate
29.Stirring
Rod
Made of glass; It is used
to stir and mix chemicals.
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30.Test TubeGlassware that comes in
many sizes;

It is used to hold small
amounts of chemicals
but has many other
uses.
test tube
31.Test Tube
Brush
Brush with wire handle;

It is used to scrub test
tubes and other thin
glassware.
brush
32.Test Tube
Holder
Made of metal;

It has a clamp with a
wooden handle.

It is used to hold a
test tube.
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33.Test Tube
Rack
It is made of wood,
metal, or plastic.

It is used to hold
test tubes in an
upright position.
test tube rack
34.ThermometerMade of glass and
filled with a red or
blue liquid
(usually alcohol);

It is used to measure
temperature accurately.
thermometer
35.Triple Beam
Balance
It is used for determining
the mass, in grams, of a
chemical or object.
Triple Beam Balance
36.Tripod
Stand
Made of metal; It is used
to hold the wire gauze
and clay triangle over a
Bunsen burner during
heating.
tripod stand
37.Volumetric
Flask
Made of glass or plastic;

It has a ring graduation
mark and can be stopped.

It is used in making
solutions to a known
volume.
volumentric flask
38.Watch
Glass
A watch glass is a
circular concave piece
of glass used in
chemistry as a surface
to evaporate a liquid,
to hold solids
while being weighed,
for heating a small
amount of substance,
and as a cover for a 
beaker. 
watch glass e1660054720905
39.Wire
Gauze
Wire screen with ceramic
fibered centre;

It is used to spread the
heat of a flame.

Theory Questions

1. (a) What is scientific law?

(b)   Give one difference between theory and hypothesis

(c)    List three applications of chemistry in each of the following:

 (i) Hospital

 (ii) agriculture 

 (iii) military

View Answers

2. (a) (i)What is drug abuse (ii) State one effect of drug abuse on human beings.

(b) List three adverse effects of chemical substances 

(c) (i) List four courses in the university that are linked to chemistry (ii) List four careers that are linked to chemistry

View Answer

3.  (a) Name and draw five (5) laboratory apparatus   

(b)  Give one use each, of the apparatus mentioned in (a) above 

View Answer

4. Name the correct apparatus for use in the laboratory to carry out the following

(a) Transferring crystals of a compound into a test tube. 

(b) Measure an accurate volume of a liquid.

 (c) Grind lumps of chemicals to powder.

(d) Dispense drops of liquid chemicals.

(e) Hold specimens for observation.

View Answer

5. (a) List four pieces of protective apparatus in the laboratory. 

(b) Which apparatus would you use for the intermittent supply of gas in the lab? 

View Answer

Responses

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Theory Question 1

1.

(a) A Scientific law is a statement that describes experimental facts e.g. experiment has proven that all gases are compressible.

 

(b) A Theory is an idea that suggests explaining an experimental fact i.e. it has been proven.

While

 A hypothesis is an idea in its testing stage i.e. it has not yet been proven.

 

(c)

(i) Hospital:

1. Drugs are products of Chemistry
2. Surgical equipment is available from chemical research and technology.
3. Blood from blood donors (to blood deficient patients) is a product of chemistry

(ii) Agriculture:

1. Agricultural implements are available as a result of inventions in chemistry
2. The use of fertilizers, insecticides, and herbicides has helped to increase food production.
3. The process of genetic engineering (used in the production of hybrid crops and more nutritious agricultural products) is a result of chemical research.

(iii) Military:

1. Chemistry has contributed to the discovery of explosives used by the military.
2. Also, the production of bullet-proof shields is a result of chemical research.
3. Military vehicles and fuels for military vehicles are a product of chemistry.

Theory Question 2

2 a.

(i) Drug abuse is the use of illegal drugs or the use of prescription or over-the-counter drugs, for purposes other than those for which they are intended to be used.

(ii) A weakened immune system; thereby increasing the risk of illness and disorders.

b. (i) Pollution (ii) Drug abuse (iii) corrosion

c. (i) Biochemistry (ii) Industrial Chemistry

(iii) Medicine (iv) Laboratory science and technology

Theory Question 3

3a (i) Beaker (ii) Measuring cylinder (iii) Funnel (iv) Petri dish

3(b) 

Beaker: A container made of glass or plastic. Glass beakers are used for indirect heating of chemicals and water

Funnel: It is used to hold filter paper during filtration

Measuring Cylinder: It is used to measure the accurate volume of liquids

Petri dish: It is used to observe chemical reactions and hold specimens for observation

Theory Question 4

4(a)

i. Spatula
ii. Measuring cylinder
iii. Mortar and pestle
iv. Dropper
v. Petri dish

Theory Question 5

5a.

(i) Safety goggles
(ii) Lab coats
(iii) Hand gloves (heat resistant gloves)
(iv) Rubber boots

5b. Gas cylinder

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