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SS1: CHEMISTRY - 1ST TERM

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  1. Introduction to Chemistry and Laboratory Apparatus | Week 1
    5Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  2. Nature of Matter | Week 2
    3Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  3. Separation Techniques I | Week 3
    1Topic
    |
    1 Quiz
  4. Separation Techniques II | Week 4
    5Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  5. Particulate Nature of Matter I | Week 5
    5Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  6. Particulate Nature of Matter II | Week 6
    9Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  7. Symbols, Formulae & Oxidation Number | Week 7
    7Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  8. Laws of Chemical Combination | Week 8
    4Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  9. Chemical Equation & Chemical Combination (Chemical Bonding) I | Week 9
    4Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  10. Chemical Combination (Chemical Bonding) II | Week 10
    4Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
  11. Chemical Combination (Chemical Bonding) III & Shapes of Covalent Molecules | Week 11
    3Topics
    |
    1 Quiz
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Below are Common Laboratory Apparatus, their description and uses

ApparatusDescription and usePicture
1BeakerA container made of glass or plastic; comes in different sizes in cm3 (ml). it is used as a container. Beakers made of glass are used for indirect heating of chemicals and water.SAETWy45QWXH6IHU4qUFjL1IrEo7jUYtabC8KusgEDzf4bgJH6H19KDzZAw88Oz9gd1Ltan PRDvE1N0ZFxnJNLH
2Bunsen BurnerA metallic device that produces a single open flame when connected to a gas outlet. It is used as a source of heat for heating.10kXYhNXZS0qe1jiecegJyiD S70P AM8mEkQMxhu7SUoxQ9WD2K wd2LO9cP
3Burette
It is made of glass or plastic and fitted with a stopcock; can be used to withdraw and measure accurate volumes of solutions during titrations.  3fUdjV75vAYij857XFLGzuqF3HwOskqTtlWiuMFrD1J8QPsxdDqHyOPnyTy96F FJDwDOVDFvrmKPZnyJPeKUGQ7E00UEsYaRBXk3S NOkmFUD eRXEWVb9wzidkFC6SHOYrMsE
4Conical FlaskIt is made of glass or plastic; has a cone shape with a narrow neck. It allows content to be swirled during an experiment. It is also used to mix or store chemicals. Glass conical flask is used for indirect heating of substances.8wFhhyvtgujnixKo1kUGyi3PJbzG3i9syvo
5Crucible and CoverIt is made of porcelain; used for heating small amounts of solid substances at high temperatures.fZd3zCysc9470cwVmYXPT JHBMjJPRXgDOFTZesG9jpOMHGDJyw9fmkMvzK5JHW26swKaWVA JFzp77mnk669QomX6C8ZXbeC25Sk11UnY3ZM5kic0nBezfSUQYTs4vGoUESrug
6Crucible TongsIt is made of metal; used to carry crucible when it is hot (after it has been subjected to heating) or when very cold.RiJ4jbFIlGwKZz1wgZLSP8dcVu1JfXHRLBgexsXG8nq6S PunK1tKAWBZY5HCRCOEkqOAzeR eZ3W 7AcdwgtOKQFtz5XDQmCsbAbnc i
7DesiccatorIt contains desiccant, which keeps hygroscopic substances from humidity.bpYuGBuksiBJxYZ41zuLj15iJbMFvio3KDBrUxUZ2DsktIrQwb72xf WhKtD
8DropperIt is made up of a glass tip with a rubber bulb. It is used to dispense drops of liquids.TltzZb5etwfBMUzyyoyKPTJReGg2 P9pNXe8zfpSsm8mXqJX5drgETOe0d0npW7hDtbPYoolpm3MZ iTCMBvK6dUpN06EcdNa95 g9w3LjfkHiWQ2bAGb6 qPnMTmwEZ02JXNfs
9Electrical BalanceUsed for quick, accurate measurement of mass.
10Evaporation DishPorcelain dish; It is used to hold solution during evaporation. wY LbUzMrA da5G41bseUWsWOblJ3JsL SDc7 UFrF07omaw9cQECCOQRgEUuOxUvbwrOLgEp120Z82uawpUJbpqdrnSwxaGHG8aU9GrkKGFdrwG3ttGbANPWzsRlStmxn uinI
11ForcepsHandheld instrument made of metal or plastic. It is used to isolate and remove small particles or hold many objects together.8gHAKxulZ13kr5vuXX0URe 9UCA0cdTLVIkAuD Fh Eya6ts3FGEzohHV6mdHmsQv2WgMJfOU5Xceb4DpJ27Rm2F5h6rGIjJHhgLqzpUPrVuR7LB2D Mq6DtZbvo0HHpKh9AtDc
12FunnelMade of glass or plastic; It is used to hold filter paper during filtration. It is also used for transferring liquids into containers with relatively small openings, so as to avoid spills.VxTFgOA2T0IYtUkNvXm6s8YJzGGP6w26SCvzv76XKc5czo9xznRLpaF4IwXriOpd9Dq1X x7lNwqwTPE V7taiF5 Yin43            
13Separating funnelMade of glass or plastic; It is used to separate immiscible liquids.5MLwQyQQGypxwgTfYswvopSoAtTb9GA6kErpj7U7UwY5QgMwDAwkcCuvknRwgg SqNwCMzrUDQ7QzLF myEVyFwcB5AA9wyrAMmIAQQ4HaSNhyutIZMprA5
14Safety goggles(safety glasses)A pair of safety glasses worn to protect the eyes.kyZ9ZWgSr7 lQ4fkR6bgexhmvUfkvpAgFL1OsVUQQ odCNyhbM kYWVgeBFFlcDkToM5DxQtynoqVNk6RxwBberznmPwFgCoJoeMf6GSh TvSpFANFPJ3Z1hw7AYD0dKS tpGC0
15Measuring cylinderMade of plastic or glass; It is used to measure accurate volume (usually of liquids). They are of different capacities.igAooavGCmn9xqzTYH8TOtDBrppGMIQgwUFs3ONCZUQ3OfX1R P3ZKUe8iHmqtMqYJNFuvd2X6UgSU3 dA8dsyL3qYm4OQWo08yuEil2OVlKC8ec vMvlB5DUJK34nC 3mcmtBU
16Heat Resistant GlovesA protective pair of hand gloves used to handle hot glassware or other hot lab equipment.rHqTAwkqC5qv7JFiCzuwIF66aj Rp64ZfO9Ysjuc602Dy062tJUSmhRjRoR7cRALsiKHkJKiGptqaocfD4zwurAZm3eIOKVIQwR58T0Q vJFdHzT3MgYUNIUi4NcPSkesq5dpy4
17Mortar and PestleHeavy porcelain dish with grinder. It is used to grind solid chemicals into powder form.iwi6mRbxN9K1Kvx aCNaglCdlyjEyZQ6wLldnYaZcnZ4ML 50AuFQy4Bq8ah6i52WV0kgfUZys C MmChNfGY0jK7hfuTckmUUdjdgVdLiMNYDF9qnGyQyv4mR0t2FzTa8LlF k
18Petri DishPlastic or glass; It is a shallow cylindrical dish with a lid. It is used to observe chemical reactions and to hold specimens for observation.M1pwVzUPVxT0COk8aDvThFRwRa1xJAS1KM
19Pipestem Triangle (Clay Triangle)Triangular wireframe with clay material coverings. It is used to hold crucible or other lab-ware in place on Bunsen burner during heating.wVLmDMrWkBqpDL76bxGzh8iIhirpRbp8Fssh2pRjoXCr8i yBFpwuV9 7l5pd oqvZbqH k88RO7BMalyZuh rrqeIJ4xjYtrJ05yL4x 1 GL74TgsC3bN8FbPvQOZZjipNsiIg
20PipetteUsed to transfer small (definite) amounts of liquid to a different container. Volumetric pipettes give an accurate measurement of liquids due to their long neck which decreases the error in measurement.ZWTWRuVgOcegQmGAjISLz3qioIth
21Plastic Wash BottleSqueezable plastic bottle; It is used to dispense distilled water in the laboratory.YoNpXbYB5XfQar1BDod CHayWorpw xhXLBvGNwfMnaEZKCDIFCKo7xsx65YLCqHKlK5yeoR xTV5Ng52t9XkfKQuFbksYcZCye8EtslKAIiFCrCIRBh c
22Reagent bottleIt is made of glass, plastic, borosilicate, or related substances, and topped by special caps or stoppers. It contains chemicals in liquid or powder form.nFMOSmha7vVGPM6Z6 DkKX3Gbz951Zx5eOqoEP5otvMsn QzOTELUjYlacoz6BP6hPaxUpAGR6iyEqwNvv70lPnZOzmvRc3y
23Resort StandMetal rod which stands upright on a heavy triangular base to which clamps can be attached to hold burettes and other equipment such as test tubes and separating funnel.7YCw9mD37iV1HuoAAs3FBlHxUTwOp27x6dDCw JLdFWtpo84v2YnUEIcf Toc97fv TAvi0tEYF4Hj6KLSz PYjBxSlpF5NfjVXNKQ1X3tAPWSd 9uN K hwt4X5KpCyZUBIhcY
24ClampIt is a metal clamp with a screw fastener, a swivel and lock nut, an adjusting screw, and a curved clamp; used to hold an apparatus (test tube or burette) to the retort stand.YS39LIy869s7V9Ta330Fksjr1ygjO5aBIwHW5BGLedFvVTzDpFjcN4aECX0L70k Ll6cvZZ7y C8cvh4dfp1ou6uYu3MO6EgQphYLmur54i6 iayMFI pe7kZI3sMNew6iujRVk
25Round bottom flaskUsed to hold liquids when carrying out reactions.y dN 2fkdkO EzCryIsLIxjIVym8qJOYbF9d XWiIca78D
26Rubber StopperUsed to cap the openings of glassware, such as test tubes or Erlenmeyer flasks.YZicvtP6ZISlz 5bbi6TTTleajhK5LMHVKwYor1bm0L0MiwcgNuvN vjWE2S7biOzNtkkZA6AXq0s3XDOIzWEceBLopSPWTgdpGJfWGgyBl1sR qyjDSBnx
27SpatulaIt is made of metal, sometimes wood; has a flat rounded end and a rectangular end. It is used to transfer small amount of solid chemicals.rEOXEDcNmKsMoXilgFy47 ONm9Uqxe NLJ maFjNmwVM1W8lzw4LItYADB5IMwqGau0bUfmp19if4hAz7aeUvd3B0 ZBMkJH Q0sGlL CvnA55VY25Vb6Hps3hi8C8pangFEd0
28Spot PlatesPlastic or ceramic reaction surfaces with slight “dips” for containing small of chemicalsmVxFY71IduOjpvH vxCijSeNAwfhHp6nHR5qd nTIrST1BdDTFyKqfYnvSybrDy6WeQJ3tluj9ep5p 1MEMlImOOYVvmFTjbJrGaOIkmu2HKYW CciylHwAyXf4Id Wxgw
29Stirring RodMade of glass; It is used to stir and mix chemicalA dxURK4ahZwYSRVU5544nreV9Lf89Una6X56q D0U3a00Wy5K FNhrm 90gjGkD09Gwzk8cZ55cM4NKXHPqYMs0oJcfqIZmIF 3TkiS0WSLeDS71SLs3mphyYmJsMQ85dqnXgc
30Test TubeGlassware that comes in many sizes; It is used to hold a small amount of chemicals, but has many other uses.GDt9XMW4V9gtkf0gqEjoaer7nJXlEj2q188iJaTtCS2xNJaEFmD9UtwFt3f8yA85B9pGg2PhPwV7p19 whOw4PKOWB skn mSJ HLwksA5j9P 6e0rUb9WZgirlT6Ccpk6jmu8w
31Test Tube BrushBrush with wire handle; It is used to scrub test tubes and other thin glassware.MDMFKezqsd6nOON0sjB1WA2awTMOcekdW3jZCdTnjWcvcj8SdX67L0h0r985f4 tN6W
32Test Tube HolderMade of metal; It has a clamp with a wooden handle. It is used to hold a test tube.WsYphjfk851PP8 zeylet8DnKPOq7zzq3kYVdyA0MuNSqbyNXecHznM t8SwL6SN91lZ
33Test Tube RackIt is made of wood, metal, or plastic. It is used to hold test tubes in an upright position.NefL318U aIdWjt6KVZ LB vHyRneUgqO1RLWTALgoF CQd0vUOhh7EjIrJGHDUBezld vCGNEaB01awe0RJnDN4PcgsgNY2r PMbLqBCUA Ir8seATIdWkXgVnMqbW3WVq08s0
34ThermometerMade of glass and filled with a red or blue liquid (usually alcohol); It is used to measure temperature accurately.jLM8uuxCSoFBrqwqfp1HE1TeXTN2jPpT81LJW7wnQniuudVYCcuUq2NcNy2W1mNIaSXT3cPusFQfAfNU7UXqcKrASkZp 55Ucu 2Bvl CL2VvkuyS80Rs2vovIYV2uSlqiGU48
35Triple Beam BalanceIt is used for determining the mass, in grams, of a chemical or object.
36Tripod standMade of metal; It is used to hold wire gauze and clay triangle over Bunsen burner during heating.Fju8enibrHFSik XNYNCj6ZQVosZdCMfrCwO3 cnEdJnDuMxa0xcLranoklLr8 bkxEaKycFFoCnqEKsl8 RxTgDrEiqTPXObN ks bBfpBtbvlkgiS 17tJ2FENoRmN057aP74
37Volumetric FlaskMade of glass or plastic; It has a ring graduation mark and can be stoppered. It is used in making solutions to a known volume.Hmw00tPFFHjo3u9v2FVUhCgJ1S 6yyYWhncnER5ySGPiXu57BajVA5 3mWVIHBsioVBqaye1qGqQI178YV4JksP1de2p
38Watch GlassA watch glass is a circular concave piece of glass used in chemistry as a surface to evaporate a liquid, to hold solids while being weighed, for heating a small amount of substance, and as a cover for a beaker. 5KP0WnVO04VutHxEfCxyHIk2eTR orY 0lk68kYkpAF56Gu7YSgJYvSESB6qKJNehwzFGYWqoSyt44CmX 6NoKoiJugFXBZnDNzhOI G6ZPMpkD Y0jitgE7Q3cnAhriSt2ZOA
39Wire GauzeWire screen with ceramic fibered centre; used to spread the heat of a flame.

Theory Questions

1. (a) What is scientific law?

(b)   Give one difference between theory and hypothesis

(c)    List three applications of chemistry in each of the following:

 (i) Hospital

 (ii) agriculture 

 (iii) military

View Answer

2. (a) (i)What is drug abuse (ii) State one effect of drug abuse on human beings.

(b) List three adverse effects of chemical substances 

(c) (i) List four courses in the university that are linked to chemistry (ii) List four careers that are linked to chemistry

View Answer

3.  (a) Name and draw five (5) laboratory apparatus   

(b)  Give one use each, of the apparatus mentioned in (a) above 

View Answer

4. Name the correct apparatus for use in the laboratory to carry out the following

(a) Transferring crystals of a compound into a test-tube. 

(b) Measure an accurate volume of a liquid.

 (c) Grind lumps of chemicals to powder.

(d) Dispense drops of liquid chemicals.

(e) Hold specimens for observation.

View Answer

5. (a) List four pieces of protective apparatus in the laboratory. 

(b) Which apparatus would you use for the intermittent supply of gas in the lab. 

View Answer

Theory Question 1

1.

(a) A Scientific law is a statement that describes experimental facts e.g. experiment has proven that all gases are compressible.

(b) A Theory is an idea that suggests explaining an experimental fact i.e. it has been proven.

While

 A hypothesis is an idea in its testing stage i.e. it has not yet been proven.

(c)

(i) Hospital:

1. Drugs are products of Chemistry
2. Surgical equipment is available from chemical research and technology.
3. Blood from blood donors (to blood deficient patients) is a product of chemistry

(ii) Agriculture:

1. Agricultural implements are available as a result of inventions in chemistry
2. The use of fertilizers, insecticides, and herbicides has helped to increase food production.
3. The process of genetic engineering (used in the production of hybrid crops and more nutritious agricultural products) is a result of chemical research.

(iii) Military:

1. Chemistry has contributed to the discovery of explosives used by the military.
2. Also, the production of bullet-proof shields is a result of chemical research.
3. Military vehicles and fuels for military vehicles are a product of chemistry.

Theory Question 2

2 a.

(i) Drug abuse is the use of illegal drugs or the use of prescription or over-the-counter drugs, for purposes other than those for which they are intended to be used.

(ii) A weakened immune system; thereby increasing the risk of illness and disorders.

b. (i) Pollution (ii) Drug abuse (iii) corrosion

c. (i) Biochemistry (ii) Industrial Chemistry

(iii) Medicine (iv) Laboratory science and technology

Theory Question 3

3a (i) Beaker (ii) Measuring cylinder (iii) Funnel (iv) Petri dish

3(b) 

Beaker: A container made of glass or plastic. Glass beakers are used for indirect heating of chemicals and water

Funnel: It is used to hold filter paper during filtration

Measuring Cylinder: It is used to measure the accurate volume of liquids

Petri dish: It is used to observe chemical reactions and hold specimens for observation

Theory Question 4

4(a)

i. Spatula
ii. Measuring cylinder
iii. Mortar and pestle
iv. Dropper
v. Petri dish

Theory Question 5

5a.

(i) Safety goggles
(ii) Lab coats
(iii) Hand gloves (heat resistant gloves)
(iv) Rubber boots

5b. Gas cylinder

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