Lesson 1, Topic 1
In Progress

# Scalars & Vectors

Lesson Progress
0% Complete

### Scalar Quantities:

Scalar quantities are physical quantities which have magnitude only or numerical value but no direction.

Examples of Scalar Quantities are

• Mass
• Length
• density
• Time
• Distance
• Temperature
• Speed
• Volume
• Density
• Area
• Current

With scalar addition, all you have to do is add the values of each scalar item to obtain the total

Examples of Addition of scalar Quantities:

â€¢ V1 + V2 = 10 cmÂ³ + 30 cmÂ³ = 40 cmÂ³
â€¢ T1 + T2 =  273K + 100K = 373K
â€¢ A1 + A2 = 200 mÂ² + 250 mÂ² = 450 mÂ²

### Vector Quantities:

Vector quantities are those quantities that have both magnitude and direction.

Examples of Vector Quantities are

• Force
• Gravitational field
• Momentum
• Weight
• Velocity
• Acceleration due to gravity
• Magnetic field
• Electric field
• Displacement
• Acceleration

### Representation of Vector:

A vector is always represented by a straight line with an arrow at the one end pointing in a particular direction. The length of the line represents the magnitude of the vector e.g.

The vector is 10N in the Eastern direction.

1. If two vectors $$\scriptsize \vec{B}$$ and $$\scriptsize \vec{D}$$ moved in the same direction and are 10N and 12N respectively, then, their resultant R is

R = 22N

2. If  $$\scriptsize \vec{B}$$ and  $$\scriptsize \vec{D}$$ are in the opposite direction.

R = 2N

$$\scriptsize \vec{D} \: -\: \scriptsize \vec{B} = R$$

The resultant is in the direction of the larger force i.e. $$\scriptsize \vec{D}$$

### Example 1:

Given that 40 N force F1 travels from west to east and 25 N force F2 travels in the opposite direction to that of 40 N force. Find the resultant of the two vectors.

Solution:

Resultant Vector R = vector F1 + ( – vector F2)
Resultant vector R = vector F1 â€“ vector F2
Resultant vector R = 40 N â€“ 25 N = 15 N

### Example 2:

90 N force travelled from east to west. If 35 N travelled in a direction that is opposite to that of 90 N, what is the force?

Solution:

Let 90 N be F1 and 35 N be F2
East to West is a negative direction of travel, therefore F1 = – 90 N
35 N travelled in the opposite direction to 90 N,
therefore F2 = +35 N

Resultant vector R = – vector F1 + vector F2
Resultant vector R = – 90N + 35N = – 55N

### Example 3:

Two vectors of equal magnitude that are pointing in opposite directions will sum to zero.   $$\scriptsize \vec{B} \: – \: \scriptsize \vec{D} = 0$$

R = 0.

### Example 4:

In the vector diagram below, find the resultant of the two vectors.

Solution:

When two vectors are inclined at 90Â° (perpendicular) to each other, their resultant is obtained using the Pythagoras theorem.

The resultant of the vectors is represented by the hypotenuse of the triangle in such a way that the direction of the resultant vector is opposite to the direction of the two vectors. The length of the hypotenuse represents the magnitude/size of the resultant vector.

Using Pythagoras,

(i)

R2Â = 102 + 122

R2 = 100 + 144

R2Â = 244

R = $$\scriptsize \sqrt{244}$$

= 15.6N

(ii) The direction is given by

$$\scriptsize tan \theta = \normalsize \frac{opp}{adj} = \frac{10}{12}$$

$$\scriptsize tan \theta = 0.833$$

Î¸ = tan-1 (0.833) = $$\scriptsize 39.8^{\circ}$$

The resultant can also be found by scale drawing.

The resultant vector is a single vector which would have the same effect in magnitude and direction as the original vectors acting together.

#### Responses

1. This is fantastic,it just like I am in class again

2. This is awesome it’s helps for quick understanding

error: